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Page updated 20 January 2004


KYOTO PROTOCOL
STATUS OF RATIFICATION
16 December 2004

Notes: 
R = Ratification 
At = Acceptance 
Ap = Approval 
Ac = Accession
* indicates Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

COUNTRY SIGNATURERATIFICATION,
ACCEPTANCE,
ACCESSION,
APPROVAL
REMARKS % of emissions
1.ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA  16/03/98  03/11/98 (R)
2.ARGENTINA   16/03/98 28/09/01 (R)
3.ARMENIA -----25/04/03 (Ac)
4.AUSTRALIA*  29/04/98
5.AUSTRIA*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (R)  0.4%
6.AZERBAIJAN  -----  28/09/00 (Ac)
7.BAHAMAS   ----- 09/04/99 (Ac)
8.BANGLADESH   ----- 22/10/01 (Ac)
9.BARBADOS   ----- 07/08/00 (Ac)
10.BELGIUM*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (R)  0.8%
11.BELIZE ----- 26/09/03 (Ac)
12.BENIN  -----  25/02/02 (Ac)
13.BHUTAN   ----- 26/08/02 (Ac)
14.BOLIVIA   09/07/98 30/11/99 (R)
15.BOTSWANA ----- 08/08/03 (Ac)
16.BRAZIL   29/04/98 23/08/02 (R)
17.BULGARIA*  18/09/98 15/08/02 (R) 0.6%
18.BURUNDI   ----- 18/10/01 (Ac)
19.CAMBODIA -----  22/08/02 (Ac)
20.CAMEROON  -----  28/08/02 (Ac)
21.CANADA*  29/04/9817/12/02 (R)3.3%
22.CHILE   17/06/98 26/08/02 (R)
23.CHINA   29/05/98 30/08/02 (Ap)(10)
24.COLOMBIA   ----- 30/11/01 (Ac)
25.COOK ISLANDS   16/09/98 27/08/01 (R) (4)
26.COSTA RICA   27/04/98 09/08/02 (R)
27.CROATIA*  11/03/99
28.CUBA   15/03/99 30/04/02 (R)
29.CYPRUS   ----- 16/07/99 (Ac)
30.CZECH REPUBLIC*    23/11/98 15/11/01 (Ap) 1.2%
31.DENMARK*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (R)1  0.4%
32.DJIBOUTI -----  12/03/02 (Ac)
33.DOMINICAN REPUBLIC   ----- 12/02/02 (Ac)
34.ECUADOR  15/01/99  13/01/00 (R)
35.EGYPT  15/03/99
36.EL SALVADOR   08/06/98 30/11/98 (R)
37.EQUATORIAL GUINEA  -----  16/08/00 (Ac)
38.ESTONIA*    03/12/98 14/10/02 (R) 0.3%
39.EUROPEAN COMMUNITY*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (Ap)  (1) (8)
40.FIJI   17/09/98 17/09/98 (R)
41.FINLAND*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (R) 0.4%
42.FRANCE*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (Ap) (2) (9)  2.7%
43.GAMBIA -----  01/06/01 (Ac)
44.GEORGIA -----  16/06/99 (Ac)
45.GERMANY*    29/04/98 31/05/02 (R) 7.4%
46.GHANA ----- 30/05/03 (Ac)
47.GREECE*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (R) 0.6%
48.GRENADA  ----- 06/08/02 (Ac)
49.GUATEMALA   10/07/98 05/10/99 (R)
50.GUINEA   ----- 07/09/00 (Ac)
51.GUYANA ----- 05/08/03 (Ac)
52.HONDURAS   25/02/99 19/07/00 (R)
53.HUNGARY*    ----- 21/08/02 (Ac) 0.5%
54.ICELAND*   ----- 23/05/02 (Ac)  0.0%
55.INDIA   ----- 26/08/02 (Ac)
56.INDONESIA  13/07/9803/12/04 (R)
57.IRELAND*     29/04/98 31/05/02 (R) (3) 0.2%
58.ISRAEL  16/12/9815/03/04 (R)
59.ITALY*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (R) 3.1%
60.JAMAICA -----  28/06/99 (Ac)
61.JAPAN*    28/04/98 04/06/02 (At) 8.5%
62.JORDAN ----- 17/01/03 (Ac)
63.KAZAKHSTAN  12/03/99
64.KIRIBATI    ----- 07/09/00 (Ac) (6)
65.KYRGYZSTAN ----- 13/05/03 (Ac)
66.LAO DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S
REPUBLIC
----- 06/02/03 (Ac)
67.LATVIA*    14/12/98 05/07/02 (R) 0.2%
68.LESOTHO   ----- 06/09/00 (Ac)
69.LIBERIA -----05/11/02 (Ac)
70.LIECHTENSTEIN*  29/06/9803/12/04 (R)
71.LITHUANIA*  21/09/9803/01/03 (R)
72.LUXEMBOURG*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (R)  0.1%
73.MADAGASCAR ----- 24/09/03 (Ac)
74.MALAWI   ----- 26/10/01 (Ac)
75.MALAYSIA  12/03/99 04/09/02 (R)
76.MALDIVES   16/03/98 30/12/98 (R)
77.MALI   27/01/99 28/03/02 (R)
78.MALTA   17/04/98 11/11/01 (R)
79.MARSHALL ISLANDS  17/03/9811/08/03 (R)
80.MAURITIUS   ----- 09/05/01 (Ac)
81.MEXICO   09/06/98 07/09/00 (R)
82.MICRONESIA
(FEDERATED STATES OF)  
17/03/98 21/06/99 (R)
83.MONACO*  29/04/98
84.MONGOLIA   ----- 15/12/99 (Ac)
85.MOROCCO -----  25/01/02 (Ac)
86.MYANMAR ----- 13/08/03 (Ac)
87.NAMIBIA ----- 04/09/03 (Ac)
88.NAURU   ----- 16/08/01 (R)(7)
89.NETHERLANDS*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (Ac)2  1.2%
90.NEW ZEALAND*  22/05/9819/12/02 (R)3(11)0.2%
91.NICARAGUA  07/07/98 18/11/99 (R)
92.NIGER  23/10/9830/09/04 (R)
93.NIGERIA ----- 10/12/04 (Ac)
93.NIUE    08/12/98 06/05/99 (R) (5)
94.NORWAY*    29/04/98 30/05/02 (R) 0.3%
95.PALAU -----  10/12/99 (Ac)
96.PANAMA  08/06/98 05/03/99 (R)
97.PAPUA NEW GUINEA  02/03/99  28/03/02 (R)
98.PARAGUAY   25/08/98 27/8/99 (R)
99.PERU   13/11/98 12/09/02 (R)
100.PHILIPPINES  15/04/9820/11/03 (R)
101.POLAND*  15/07/9813/12/02 (R)3.0%
102.PORTUGAL*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (Ap)  0.3%
103.REPUBLIC OF KOREA  25/09/9808/11/02 (R)
104.REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA -----  22/04/03 (Ac)
105.ROMANIA*    05/01/99 19/03/01 (R) 1.2%
106.RUSSIAN FEDERATION*  11/03/9918/11/04 (R)
RWANDA -----22/07/04 (Ac)
107.SAINT LUCIA  16/03/9820/08/03
108.SAINT VINCENT AND THE
GRENADINES 
19/03/98
109.SAMOA   16/03/98 27/11/00 (R)
110.SENEGAL  -----  20/07/01 (Ac)
111.SEYCHELLES   20/03/98 22/07/02 (R)
112.SLOVAKIA*  26/02/99  31/05/02 (R)  0.4%
113.SLOVENIA*   21/10/98 02/08/02 (R)
114.SOLOMON ISLANDS  29/09/9813/03/03 (Ac)
115.SOUTH AFRICA   ----- 31/07/02 (Ac)
116.SPAIN*   29/04/98 31/05/02 (R)  1.9%
117.SRI LANKA   ----- 03/09/02 (Ac)
118.SWEDEN*  29/04/98  31/05/02 (R) 0.4%
119.SWITZERLAND*  16/03/9809/07/03 (R)0.3%
120.THAILAND   02/02/99 28/08/02 (R)
FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA ----- 18/11/04 (Ac)
TOGO ----- 02/07/04 (Ac)
121.TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO  07/01/99  28/01/99 (R)
122.TUNISIA ----- 22/01/03 (Ac)
123.TURKMENISTAN  28/09/98  11/01/99 (R)
124.TUVALU   16/11/98 16/11/98 (R)
125.UGANDA   ----- 25/03/02 (Ac)
126.UKRAINE*  15/03/9912/04/04 (R)
127.UNITED KINGDOM OF
GREAT BRITAIN
& NORTHERN IRELAND*
29/04/98 31/05/02 (R)  4.3%
128.UNITED REPUBLIC OF
TANZANIA
----- 26/08/02 (Ac)
129.UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA* 
12/11/98
130.URUGUAY   29/07/98 05/02/01 (R)
131.UZBEKISTAN   20/11/98 12/10/99 (R)
132.VANUATU   ----- 17/07/01 (Ac)
133.VIET NAM   03/12/98 25/09/02 (R)
YEMEN -----15/09/04 (Ac)
134.ZAMBIA  05/08/98
TOTAL 8412044.2%

* indicates Annex I Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

1 With a territorial exclusion to the Faroe Islands.
2
For the Kingdom in Europe.
3 with a territorial exclusion to Tokelau.

DECLARATIONS

(1) European Community:
“The European Community and its Member States will fulfil their respective commitments under
article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol jointly in accordance with the provisions of article 4.”

(2) France:
“The French Republic reserves the right, in ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change, to exclude its Overseas Territories from the scope of
the Protocol.”

(3) Ireland:
“The European Community and the Member States, including Ireland, will fulfil their respective
commitments under article 3, paragraph 1, of the Protocol in accordance with the provisions of
article 4.”

(4) Cook Islands:
“The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that signature and subsequent
ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under
international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of the climate change and
that no provision in the Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general
international law.
In this regard, the Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best
available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the
emissions reduction obligation in article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”

(5) Niue:
“The Government of Niue declares its understanding that ratification of the Kyoto Protocol shall in
no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning state
responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provisions in the Protocol can be
interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law.
In this regard, the Government of Niue further declares that, in light of the best available scientific
information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions reduction
obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system.”

(6) Kiribati:
“The Government of the Republic of Kiribati declares its understanding that accession to the Kyoto
Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning
State responsibility for the adverse effects of the climate change and that no provision in the
Protocol can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law.”

(7) Nauru
"... The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the
Kyoto Protocol shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law
concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change; ...
... The Government of the Republic of Nauru further declares that, in the light of the best available
scientific information and assessment of climate change and impacts, it considers the emissions of
reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol to be inadequate to prevent the dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system;
... [The Government of the Republic of Nauru declares] that no provisions in the Protocol can be
interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law[.]

(8) European Community:
“The European Community declares that, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European
Community, and in particular article 175 (1) thereof, it is competent to enter into international
agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of
the following objectives:
- preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;
- protecting human health;
- prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;
- promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or world wide
environmental problems.
The European Community declares that its quantified emission reduction commitment under the
Protocol will be fulfilled through action by the Community and its Member States within the
respective competence of each and that it has already adopted legal instruments, binding on its
Member States, covering matters governed by the Protocol.
The European Community will on a regular basis provide information on relevant Community legal
instruments within the framework of the supplementary information incorporated in its national
communication submitted under article 12 of the Convention for the purpose of demonstrating
compliance with its commitments under the Protocol in accordance with article 7 (2) thereof and the
guidelines thereunder.”

(9) France:
“The ratification by the French Republic of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change of 11 December 1997 should be interpreted in the context of the
commitment assumed under article 4 of the Protocol by the European Community, from which it is
indissociable. The ratification does not, therefore, apply to the Territories of the French Republic to
which the Treaty establishing the European Community is not applicable.
Nonetheless, in accordance with article 4, paragraph 6, of the Protocol, the French Republic shall, in
the event of failure to achieve the total combined level of emission reductions, remain individually
responsible for its own level of emissions.”

(10) China:
In a communication received on 30 August 2002, the Government of the People's Republic of China
informed the Secretary-General of the following:
Last modified on: 26 November 2003
“In accordance with article 153 of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of
the People's Republic of China of 1990 and article 138 of the Basic Law of the Macao Special
Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China of 1993, the Government of the People's
Republic of China decides that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change shall provisionally not apply to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and
the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.”

(11) New Zealand:
".....consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of
the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act
of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, this ratification shall not extend to
Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand
with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory."

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